Hovsco official website updated the article in February 2022, How do electric bicycles work? The article describes in detail how electric bikes work. Below are the details of this article.
As e-bikes grow in popularity, what are the technical concepts and limitations, and how do they work?
With the COVID-19 pandemic forcing commuters to reconsider their use of public transportation, the e-bike market boomed, since it provides an alternative to active travel that is accessible to everyone regardless of fitness level or ability. Electric bikes are now thriving, and more people are curious than ever about them, wanting to try them out and asking all kinds of questions about them.
How do electric bikes work and what are their limitations? What impact will the emergence of e-bikes have on riderr cycling choices in the near future?
Batteries for bicycles are not a new concept, but the development of e-bikes has been hindered by two issues: energy portability and drivetrain integration. It was impossible a decade ago to find batteries that were light and compact enough, with adequate energy density and affordable pricing.
It was equally challenging to hybridize the bicycle drivetrain. It can be unnatural to ride with power surges ruining riderr pedal rhythm, and it can be difficult to calibrate the electric motor action and rider cadence.
Electric bikes for road, gravel, commuting, and moreThe best electric road bikes: Ride faster and farther with less effortCheap electric bikes: The best electric bike dealsAmong all the manufacturers, Shimano is one of the most influential in the cycling world, and the company produces an impressive catalog of parts. Shimano’s groupsets are among the most widely known and distributed in the world, along with SRAM.
Shimano’s control of research and manufacturing means that when the Japanese company releases a new product trend, rider know it’s significant. In late 2020, Shimano demonstrated its dedication to the battery-assisted bike movement by unveiling the EP8 e-bike motor.
An e-bike’s inner workings
Sensors measure torque, cadence and speed, performing more than a thousand calculations per second. The e-bike’s sensors detect the need for battery assistance, and the main algorithm controls the entire system, releasing energy from the battery pack to power the electromagnets in the motor.
On the best electric bikes today, pedal input is reinforced by the motor, not the throttle. This provides a smooth electric bike ride as opposed to a moped-style twist and ride.
E-bikes have both permanent magnets and electromagnets in their mid-drive motors, the latter powered by a battery pack.
The permanent magnets sit in the center of the middle drive motor, while the electromagnets (identifiable by the wires wrapped around them) adorn the rest of the housing. By manipulating the polarity of these electromagnets, the transistor adds pedal assist to the rider’s ride.
In addition to the rider software coding, the orientation and quality of the rider magnet determines the performance of the rider’s e-bike drive system. Getting the repulsive and attractive forces between magnets to work as well as possible can be challenging.
Superior quality neodymium magnets are incredibly powerful, increasing the performance and range of the rider’s motor system without the need for a larger battery.
In terms of performance, the permanent-magnet-oriented Halbach array approach can double the performance, but bonding magnets in this way is a challenge, especially in compact mid-drive motor configurations. Halbach arrays are also expensive to produce.
How to make a mid-drive motor that works
The consumer electronics and automotive industries have played a vital role in developing lightweight, high-energy batteries ideal for power and mass configurations in e-bikes.
Now with more powerful battery chemistries, designers can finally package the unique components of an e-bike in an elegant and practical way. There are some electric bikes out there that are hard to distinguish from non-assisted bikes. An example is the Ribble Endurance SL e.
Designing an e-bike is not difficult in principle. Unlike mopeds, e-bikes offer pedal assist via a bottom bracket motor. The rider can’t adjust the throttle, which is an important difference.
When it comes to the best electric road bikes, the bottom bracket and downtube are the most structurally important frame areas. Almost all e-bikes have a downtube-mounted battery and use a mid-drive motor that sits in the bottom bracket between the cranks.
The electric motors convert the battery’s energy into pedal assist, but they do spin much faster than the rider’s cadence. The mid-drive motor uses internal gears to regulate its power output and rider pedaling cadence, allowing the rider to pedal in sync with onboard power.
The hallmark of a great e-bike is that its sophisticated mid-drive motor control software is different from clunky riding software. An e-bike with a well-calibrated and tested line of code that responds to the rider’s pedal stroke and cadence in a better way.
Sensors measure the rider’s torque input and cadence, then calculate the appropriate level of exercise assist. The best e-bikes should never feel artificially electro-mechanical, as sudden changes in the slope of the terrain or when shifting gears can cause a surge in power.
Electric bike product managers consider downwind riding as the ideal experience. With the latest generation of e-bike control algorithms, riders feel as if they are coasting at higher speeds while maintaining a natural rhythm.
The future: better, lighter, smaller
Scale lowers prices, and competition drives innovation. As demand for e-bikes increases across all bicycle segments, component suppliers can start offering better batteries and motors at more affordable prices.
Electric bikes are battery-powered, meaning cyclists are less likely to witness a “power output war” between suppliers – with no manual throttle and the risk of triggering strict government speed and safety regulations.
As in other fields, the goal of cycling is to reduce weight and increase efficiency. As the energy density of the battery system increases, the range can be improved for the same mass, rather than engineers trying to improve the speed and acceleration characteristics by using a more powerful motor and a larger battery pack.
In the four years since the original E8000 STEPS drive motor system was introduced, Shimano has made significant progress with its new EP8 motor. In addition to being 21% more powerful than the E8000 system, it’s 10% lower in mass and a similar percentage smaller in size, making it easier for frame designers to incorporate e-bike functionality into existing or new model lines.
With the introduction of the new EP8 system, Shimano confirms its commitment to mid-drive motor development and drivetrain integration software.
Of all the traditional bike parts brands, Specialized has shown the greatest interest in investing in e-bike technology and has its own engineering assets. There should also be more competition among these big bike companies thanks to Shimano’s new EP8 system, which ultimately benefits customers in terms of choice and price diversity.
Don’t expect a rider’s future e-bike to be very powerful and capable of going at breakneck speeds. Battery-assisted rhythms were never designed for this purpose. Still, if riders need something to overcome afternoon headwinds or steep climbs on routes with less light, the increased competition in the e-bike market will provide better battery-assisted rides.
HOVSCO is a company specializing in electric bicycles. With advanced production technology, it focuses on the production and sales of electric bicycles. These include mountain e-bikes and city e-bikes. It is very popular among consumers for its good quality.